Jin Ma Publications Content

Publications

REFEREED PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS

4.  Xu, RN, R Li, J Ma, D He, and PX Jiang Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage, ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, 50/9, pp. 2056-2066, 2017. Abstract
Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO2 transforms from a separate phase to CO2(aq) and HCO3- by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO2(aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO2 water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO2(sc/g), CO2(aq), HCO3-, and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO2 dissolved water is continuously injected through the core. The MRI results indicate dissolution of the carbonates during the experiments since the porosity has been increased after the core-flooding experiments. The mineral dissolution changes the pore structure by enlarging the throat diameters and decreasing the pore specific surface areas, resulting in lower CO2/water capillary pressures and changes in the relative permeability. When the reservoir pressure decreases, the CO2 exsolution occurs due to the reduction of solubility. The CO2 bubbles preferentially grow toward the larger pores instead of toward the throats or the finer pores during the depressurization. After exsolution, the exsolved CO2 phase shows low mobility due to the highly dispersed pore-scale morphology, and the well dispersed small bubbles tend to merge without interface contact driven by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. During depressurization, the dissolved carbonate could also precipitate as a result of increasing pH. There is increasing formation water flow resistance and low mobility of the CO2 in the presence of CO2 exsolution and carbonate precipitation. These effects produce a self-sealing mechanism that may reduce unfavorable CO2 migration even in the presence of sudden reservoir depressurization.
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3.  Manceau, J.C., J. Ma, and R. Li Two-phase flow properties of a sandstone rock for the CO2/water system: Core-flooding experiments, and focus on impacts of mineralogical changes, Water Resources Research, 51, pp. 2885-2900, 2015. Abstract
The two-phase flow characterization (CO2/water) of a Triassic sandstone core from the Paris Basin, France, is reported in this paper. Absolute properties (porosity and water permeability), capillary pressure, relative permeability with hysteresis between drainage and imbibition, and residual trapping capacities have been assessed at 9 MPa pore pressure and 28°C (CO2 in liquid state) using a single core-flooding apparatus associated with magnetic resonance imaging. Different methodologies have been followed to obtain a data set of flow properties to be upscaled and used in large-scale CO2 geological storage evolution modeling tools. The measurements are consistent with the properties of well-sorted water-wet porous systems. As the mineralogical investigations showed a nonnegligible proportion of carbonates in the core, the experimental protocol was designed to observe potential impacts on flow properties of mineralogical changes. The magnetic resonance scanning and mineralogical observations indicate mineral dissolution during the experimental campaign, and the core-flooding results show an increase in porosity and water absolute permeability. The changes in two-phase flow properties appear coherent with the pore structure modifications induced by the carbonates dissolution but the changes in relative permeability could also be explained by a potential increase of the water-wet character of the core. Further investigations on the impacts of mineral changes are required with other reactive formation rocks, especially carbonate-rich ones, because the implications can be significant both for the validity of laboratory measurements and for the outcomes of in situ operations modeling.
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2.  Ma, J., D. Petrilli, and J.C. Manceau Core scale modelling of CO2 flowing: identifying key parameters and experiment fitting, Energy Procedia, 37, pp. 5464-5472, 2013. Abstract
In this study, we propose to evaluate CO2-brine characteristics using core flooding experiment results with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and a 1D numerical modelling approach along with a perspective on the role of CO2-brine characteristics on storage efficiency at the reservoir scale. MRI can be used to understand the pore structure and the flow characteristic of the drainage process more directly. The relative permeability curve which is the key parameter to field scale simulation can be obtained by the experiments. 1D numerical modelling is conducted to understand the results observed experimentally and the associated processes by using the parameters measured during the experiments. The modelling can explain the observed differences with the experiment through a sensitivity analysis and propose several set of parameters allowing a good match between experiments and models (history matching). It is shown that the combination method between the experiments and the modelling is a suitable method to understand the mechanism of CO2 geological storage. Moreover, the experiments can provide the validation to the modelling which is the important tool to predict the CO2 migration underground.
/ Download
1.  Ma, J., R.N. Xu, and S. Luo Core-scale Experimental Study on Supercritical-Pressure CO2 Migration Mechanism during CO2 Geological Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 33, pp. 1971-1975, 2012. Abstract
Abstract To address the climate change and reduce the emission of CO2, CO2 storage in the deep saline aquifer is one of the promising technologies. The visualization experimental system was set up to investigate the CO2 migration mechanism during the displacement of supercritical CO2 and water inside the core rock. From the experimental system, the experiment measured porosity, calculated the relative permeability-water saturation curve the water distribution will be achieved. The porosity can be measured accurately using MR technique. The fraction of effective porosity and movable fluid can be calculated, according to the T2 curve from MR. The MRI for core slice with the injection ratio of CO2:H2O=3:1 shows remarkable buoyancy effect. Core-scale experimental study on supercritical-pressure CO2 migration mechanism during CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279937649_Core-scale_experimental_study_on_supercritical-pressure_CO2_migration_mechanism_during_CO2_geological_storage_in_deep_saline_aquifers [accessed Jun 7, 2017].
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THESES

1.  Ma, J. Researches on the Migration of Supercritical CO2 on Geological Storage Conditions , MSc Thesis Tsinghua University, 86 pp., 2013. Abstract
In order to mitigate the global warming, development of the technologies for CO2 storage is very necessary. CO2 storage in geological formations especially in deep saline aquifers is considered a promising way. As an important basis, the mechanisms of supercritical CO2 and water two phase flow of in porous media is not yet fully developed. Therefore, to have a better understanding of CO2 migration aquifers, this thesis investigates characteristic functions of multiphase fluid flow migration and the influences of formation heterogeneity and dissolution conditions by using experimental and numerical methods. As important functions of describing multiphase displacement processes in porous media, relative permeability and capillary pressure curves from different core samples are obtained, which provide essential parameters for numerical modeling. This paper also successfully extended relative permeability curves by analyzing capillary pressure experimental data. A 1D modeling approach using multiphase transport code TOUGH2 proposes several set of parameters allowing a good match between experiments and models. Sensitivities of ‘end effect’, capillary pressure, permeability, residual gas and water are analyzed using the same model. A series of experiments are performed to study the influence of the CO2 exsolution, calcite dissolution and precipitation. It shows the effect on permeability due to CO2 exsolution triggered by pressure drop is predictable. Calcite precipitates in different forms depending on chemical conditions, which has a much obvious influence on low permeability rocks than high permeability ones by blocking the pores and/or throats.
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show/hide list of publications

REFEREED PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS

4.  Xu, RN, R Li, J Ma, D He, and PX Jiang Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage, ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, 50/9, pp. 2056-2066, 2017. Abstract
Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO2 transforms from a separate phase to CO2(aq) and HCO3- by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO2(aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO2 water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO2(sc/g), CO2(aq), HCO3-, and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO2 dissolved water is continuously injected through the core. The MRI results indicate dissolution of the carbonates during the experiments since the porosity has been increased after the core-flooding experiments. The mineral dissolution changes the pore structure by enlarging the throat diameters and decreasing the pore specific surface areas, resulting in lower CO2/water capillary pressures and changes in the relative permeability. When the reservoir pressure decreases, the CO2 exsolution occurs due to the reduction of solubility. The CO2 bubbles preferentially grow toward the larger pores instead of toward the throats or the finer pores during the depressurization. After exsolution, the exsolved CO2 phase shows low mobility due to the highly dispersed pore-scale morphology, and the well dispersed small bubbles tend to merge without interface contact driven by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. During depressurization, the dissolved carbonate could also precipitate as a result of increasing pH. There is increasing formation water flow resistance and low mobility of the CO2 in the presence of CO2 exsolution and carbonate precipitation. These effects produce a self-sealing mechanism that may reduce unfavorable CO2 migration even in the presence of sudden reservoir depressurization.
/ Download
3.  Manceau, J.C., J. Ma, and R. Li Two-phase flow properties of a sandstone rock for the CO2/water system: Core-flooding experiments, and focus on impacts of mineralogical changes, Water Resources Research, 51, pp. 2885-2900, 2015. Abstract
The two-phase flow characterization (CO2/water) of a Triassic sandstone core from the Paris Basin, France, is reported in this paper. Absolute properties (porosity and water permeability), capillary pressure, relative permeability with hysteresis between drainage and imbibition, and residual trapping capacities have been assessed at 9 MPa pore pressure and 28°C (CO2 in liquid state) using a single core-flooding apparatus associated with magnetic resonance imaging. Different methodologies have been followed to obtain a data set of flow properties to be upscaled and used in large-scale CO2 geological storage evolution modeling tools. The measurements are consistent with the properties of well-sorted water-wet porous systems. As the mineralogical investigations showed a nonnegligible proportion of carbonates in the core, the experimental protocol was designed to observe potential impacts on flow properties of mineralogical changes. The magnetic resonance scanning and mineralogical observations indicate mineral dissolution during the experimental campaign, and the core-flooding results show an increase in porosity and water absolute permeability. The changes in two-phase flow properties appear coherent with the pore structure modifications induced by the carbonates dissolution but the changes in relative permeability could also be explained by a potential increase of the water-wet character of the core. Further investigations on the impacts of mineral changes are required with other reactive formation rocks, especially carbonate-rich ones, because the implications can be significant both for the validity of laboratory measurements and for the outcomes of in situ operations modeling.
/ Download
2.  Ma, J., D. Petrilli, and J.C. Manceau Core scale modelling of CO2 flowing: identifying key parameters and experiment fitting, Energy Procedia, 37, pp. 5464-5472, 2013. Abstract
In this study, we propose to evaluate CO2-brine characteristics using core flooding experiment results with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and a 1D numerical modelling approach along with a perspective on the role of CO2-brine characteristics on storage efficiency at the reservoir scale. MRI can be used to understand the pore structure and the flow characteristic of the drainage process more directly. The relative permeability curve which is the key parameter to field scale simulation can be obtained by the experiments. 1D numerical modelling is conducted to understand the results observed experimentally and the associated processes by using the parameters measured during the experiments. The modelling can explain the observed differences with the experiment through a sensitivity analysis and propose several set of parameters allowing a good match between experiments and models (history matching). It is shown that the combination method between the experiments and the modelling is a suitable method to understand the mechanism of CO2 geological storage. Moreover, the experiments can provide the validation to the modelling which is the important tool to predict the CO2 migration underground.
/ Download
1.  Ma, J., R.N. Xu, and S. Luo Core-scale Experimental Study on Supercritical-Pressure CO2 Migration Mechanism during CO2 Geological Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 33, pp. 1971-1975, 2012. Abstract
Abstract To address the climate change and reduce the emission of CO2, CO2 storage in the deep saline aquifer is one of the promising technologies. The visualization experimental system was set up to investigate the CO2 migration mechanism during the displacement of supercritical CO2 and water inside the core rock. From the experimental system, the experiment measured porosity, calculated the relative permeability-water saturation curve the water distribution will be achieved. The porosity can be measured accurately using MR technique. The fraction of effective porosity and movable fluid can be calculated, according to the T2 curve from MR. The MRI for core slice with the injection ratio of CO2:H2O=3:1 shows remarkable buoyancy effect. Core-scale experimental study on supercritical-pressure CO2 migration mechanism during CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279937649_Core-scale_experimental_study_on_supercritical-pressure_CO2_migration_mechanism_during_CO2_geological_storage_in_deep_saline_aquifers [accessed Jun 7, 2017].
/ Download

THESES

1.  Ma, J. Researches on the Migration of Supercritical CO2 on Geological Storage Conditions , MSc Thesis Tsinghua University, 86 pp., 2013. Abstract
In order to mitigate the global warming, development of the technologies for CO2 storage is very necessary. CO2 storage in geological formations especially in deep saline aquifers is considered a promising way. As an important basis, the mechanisms of supercritical CO2 and water two phase flow of in porous media is not yet fully developed. Therefore, to have a better understanding of CO2 migration aquifers, this thesis investigates characteristic functions of multiphase fluid flow migration and the influences of formation heterogeneity and dissolution conditions by using experimental and numerical methods. As important functions of describing multiphase displacement processes in porous media, relative permeability and capillary pressure curves from different core samples are obtained, which provide essential parameters for numerical modeling. This paper also successfully extended relative permeability curves by analyzing capillary pressure experimental data. A 1D modeling approach using multiphase transport code TOUGH2 proposes several set of parameters allowing a good match between experiments and models. Sensitivities of ‘end effect’, capillary pressure, permeability, residual gas and water are analyzed using the same model. A series of experiments are performed to study the influence of the CO2 exsolution, calcite dissolution and precipitation. It shows the effect on permeability due to CO2 exsolution triggered by pressure drop is predictable. Calcite precipitates in different forms depending on chemical conditions, which has a much obvious influence on low permeability rocks than high permeability ones by blocking the pores and/or throats.
/ Download