Maren Brehme Publications Content

Publications


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Underlined names are links to current or past GEG members

REFEREED PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS

14. 
Luo, W., A. Kottsova, P. J. Vardon, A.C. Dieudonne, and M. Brehme, Mechanisms causing injectivity decline and enhancement in geothermal projects, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 185, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2023.113623 [Download] [View Abstract]In geothermal projects, reinjection of produced water has been widely applied for disposing wastewater, supplying heat exchange media and maintaining reservoir pressure. Accordingly, it is a key process for environmental and well performance assessment, which partly controls the success of projects. However, the injectivity, a measure of how easily fluids can be reinjected into reservoirs, is influenced by various processes throughout installation and operation. Both injectivity decline and enhancement have been reported during reinjection operations, while most current studies tend to only focus on one aspect. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on how the injectivity can be influenced during reinjection, both positively and negatively. This includes a detailed overview of the different clogging mechanisms, in which decreasing reservoir temperature plays a major role, leading to injectivity decline. Strategies to avoid and recover from injectivity reduction are also introduced. Followed is an overview of mechanisms underlying injectivity enhancement during reinjection, wherein re-opening/shearing of pre-existing fractures and thermal cracking have been identified as the main contributors. In practice, nevertheless, mixedmechanism processes play a key role during reinjection. Finally, this review provides an outlook on future research directions that can enhance the understanding of injectivity-related issues.

13. 
Asnin, S.N., M. Nnko, S. Josephat, A. Mahecha, E. Mshiu, G. Bertotti, and M. Brehme, Identification of water-rock interaction of surface thermal water in Songwe medium temperature geothermal area, Tanzania, Environmental Earth Sciences, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10594-4 [Download]

12. 
Suherlina, L., J. Newson, Y. Kamah, and M. Brehme, The Dynamic Evolution of the Lahendong Geothermal System in North-Sulawesi, Indonesia. , Geothermics , 105, pp. 1-19, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2022.102510 [Download] [View Abstract]This study uses an integrated approach to characterize the dynamic evolution of the power- producing high-enthalpy geothermal system of Lahendong, North-Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lahendong has two primary reservoirs, the southern and the northern, which have been utilised for electricity production for more than twenty years. The main focus of this study is the characterisation of heat and mass flows in the system with respect to geological structures and permeability distribution. Also, it delineates how the geothermal system has evolved and the spatial variation of the response resulting from prolonged utilization of the reservoirs. This research implemented geological structure analysis on recent surface fault mapping and pre-existing fault studies from literature. Further, the study analysed well data comprising well pressure, enthalpy, drilling program reviews and tracer tests. Hydrochemical investigation compiled new and old surface and subsurface hydrochemical evolution in both the temporal and spatial domain. The results confirm several trends of faults in the study area: NE-SW and NW-SE are the major striking directions, while E-W and N-S are less dominant. The most apparent trends are NE- SW striking strike-slip faults, perpendicular NW-SE thrust faults and N-S and E-W striking normal faults. The faults compartmentalize the reservoir. A comparison of the southern and the northern reservoir shows that the south is more structurally controlled by faults; both reservoirs rely on fractures as permeability provider and are controlled by shallow hydrogeology, derived from the integrated analysis of transient well data. Geochemical analysis shows that the reservoir fluids have generally higher Electrical Conductivity and closer to fluid-rock equilibrium, probably due to boiling. Spring waters have generally become more acidic, which is an expected result of reservoir boiling and increased steam input to near-surface waters. The spatial distribution of changes shows permeability evolution over time and also the role of structural permeability in response to changing reservoir conditions. Observing and recording reservoir data is highly important to understand the reservoir response to production and ensure the long-term sustainability of the system. Additionally, the data is critical for making a major difference in the reservoir management strategy.

11. 
Marko, A., J. Madl-Szonyi, and M. Brehme, Injection related issues of a doublet system in a sandstone aquifer-A generalized concept to understand and avoid problem sources in geothermal systems, Geothermics, 97/102234, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2021.102234 [Download]

10. 
Martens, S., M. Brehme, V. Bruckman, C. Juhlin, J. Miocic, A.P. Rinaldi, and M. Kühn, Preface: Special issue from the Division on Energy, Resources and the Environment at EGU2020: Sharing geoscience online, Advances in Geosciences, 54, pp. 1-5, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-54-1-2020 [Download]

9. 
Brehme, M., K. Nowak, D. Banks, S. Petrauskas, R. Valickas, K. Bauer, N. Burnside, and A. Boyce, A Review of the Hydrochemistry of a Deep Sedimentary Aquifer and its Consequences for Geothermal Operation – Klaipeda, Lithuania, Geofluids, 2019, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4363592 [Download]

8. 
Brehme, M., R. Giese, L. Suherlina, and Y. Kamah, Geothermal sweetspots identified in a volcanic lake integrating bathymetry and fluid chemistry, Nature Scientific Reports, 9/16153, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52638-z [Download]

7. 
Brehme, M, S Regensburg, P Leary, F Bulut, H Milsch, S Petrauskas, R Valickas, and G Blöcher, Injection-triggered occlusion of flow pathways in geothermal operations, Geofluids, 2018, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4694829 [Download]

6. 
Brehme, M., K. Bauer, M. Nukman, and S. Regensburg, Self-organizing maps in geothermal exploration – A new approach for understanding geochemical processes and fluid evolution, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 336, pp. 19-32, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.01.013 [Download]

5. 
Brehme, M., M.G. Blöcher, M. Cacace, Y. Kamah, G. Zimmermann, and M. Sauter, Permeability distribution in the Lahendong geothermal field: A blind fault captured by thermal–hydraulic simulation, Environmental Earth Sciences, 75/1088, pp. 1-11, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5878-9 [Download]

4. 
Brehme, M., F. Deon, C. Haase, B. Wiegand, Y. Kamah, M. Sauter, and S. Regensburg, Fault controlled geochemical properties in Lahendong geothermal reservoir Indonesia, Grundwasser, 21/1, pp. 29-41, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00767-015-0313-9 [Download]

3. 
Deon, F., H.J. Förster, M. Brehme, B. Wiegand, T. Scheytt, I. Moeck, M.S. Jaya, and D.J. Putriatni, Geochemical/hydrochemical evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Lamongan volcanic field (Eastern Java, Indonesia), Geothermal Energy, 3/20, pp. 1-21, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-015-0040-6 [Download]

2. 
Brehme, M., I. Moeck, Y. Kamah, G. Zimmermann, and M. Sauter, A hydrotectonic model of a geothermal reservoir – A study in Lahendong, Indonesia, Geothermics, 51, pp. 228-239, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2014.01.010 [Download]

1. 
Brehme, M., T. Scheytt, U.E. Dokuz, and M. Celik, Hydrochemical characterization of ground and surface water at Dörtyol/Hatay/Turkey, Environmental Earth Sciences, 63/6, pp. 1395-1408, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0810-1 [Download]


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PROCEEDINGS REFEREED

12. 
Rangel Jurado, N., S. Kucuk, M. Brehme, R. Lathion, F. Games, and M.O. Saar, Comparative analysis on the techno-economic performance of different geothermal system types for heat generation, European Geothermal Congress, 2022. [View Abstract]Geothermal energy can play a major role in renewable energy transition efforts worldwide by replacing fossil fuels since it provides baseload, firm, and carbon-free energy. Nonetheless, in contrast to its renewable alternatives, which are harnessed on the Earth’s surface, geothermal energy resources exist underground, inherently posing challenges, risks, uncertainties, and opportunities regarding energy exploration and utilization. As a result, multiple concepts to exploit geothermal energy have been proposed over the last century with varying degrees of complexity, technological maturity, and commercial success. This paper presents a first-order comparison of the technoeconomic performance of different types of deep geothermal systems for direct heat production. The system types are Conventional Hydrothermal Systems (CHS), CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG) systems, and Advanced [or Closed-Loop] Geothermal Systems (AGS and CO2-AGS). In this study, we consider a medium sized, standard geothermal field of intermediate depth (i.e., average continental crust geothermal gradient and petrophysical properties), for which all naturally occurring reservoir conditions remain fixed. Our results show that water-based and open-loop configurations are more favorable in the context of heat production for the reservoir conditions investigated here. However, the value of CO2-based and closed-loop designs is overlooked in direct-use applications. Our work highlights how important the interplay between thermal performance and hydraulic performance is to predict and regulate the techno-economic viability of deep geothermal projects over multiple decades.

11. 
Rangel-Jurado, N., S. Kücük, M. Brehme, R. Lathion, F. Games, and M. Saar, Comparative Analysis on the Techno-Economic Performance of Different Types of Deep Geothermal Systems for Heat Production , European Geothermal Congress 2022, 2022.

10. 
Gomez-Diaz, E., A. Balza Morales, M. Brehme, P. Kukla, and F. Wagner, Geothermal potential in the Rhine-Ruhr region - Integration of structural analysis and a preliminary magnetotelluric feasibility study , European Geothermal Congress 2022, 2022.

9. 
Hau, K.P., F. Games, R. Lathion, M. Brehme, and M.O. Saar, On the feasibility of producing geothermal energy at an intended CO2 sequestration field site in Switzerland, European Geothermal Congress 2022, 2022. [Download PDF] [View Abstract]The global climate crisis is caused by the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon, Capture, and Storage (CCS) has been identified as a key technology towards reaching a climate-neutral society. So far, however, the widespread, large-scale deployment of CCS has been prevented, among other things, by its uneconomical nature. (Zapantis et al., 2019). To increase the economic efficiency of CCS, the stored CO2 could additionally be used as a circulating fluid for geothermal power production, turning CCS into simultaneous Carbon, Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS). The concept of CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) for permanently isolating and using CO2 at the same time was first introduced by Randolph and Saar in 2011. So far CPG has not been tested at the field scale. This study aims at demonstrating the feasibility of CPG for a site in Western Switzerland. First, the study conceptually investigates the CPG power capacity at the study site. Next, a conceptual 3D model is created using an interpreted seismic anticline structure in the Triassic sediments of the Swiss Molasse Basin. We conduct multi-phase fluid flow simulations based on the conceptual geologic model to simulate realistic CO2 circulation. Injection and production rates for multiple well configurations are assessed to calculate the expected geothermal energy production. The obtained results will provide an assessment of the general site suitability and storage capacity for long-term CCUS. Also, these results will enable an estimation of the CPG potential and geothermal power output of the site.

8. 
Brehme, M., A. Marko, M. Osvald, G. Zimmermann, W. Weinzierl, S. Aldaz, S. Thiem, and E. Huenges, The success of soft stimulation: thermal, hydraulic and chemical parameters before and after stimulation at the Mezőberény site, European Geothermal Congress 2022, 2022. [View Abstract]This study describes the geothermal system in Mezőberény (Hungary) and on-site activities done within the DESTRESS project. The major challenge at the site was a poor injectivity, observed after a certain time of operation of the geothermal system. First, an evaluation of all available data of the site and the wells in the vicinity of the location has been conducted. After that, a well-logging and stimulation program was designed. The logging aimed to study a possible filling of the well with e.g. sands from the reservoir, corrosion or precipitation products, which would reduce the injectivity. A cleaning and circulation of fluids in the well was done to test the well integrity performance. The first operational phase was complemented by a thermal stimulation using cold water injection. In the second phase, we performed a chemical soft stimulation using a coiled tubing unit to inject the chemicals as close as possible to the target horizons. Lift tests before and after the injection of the chemicals and a final injection test were conducted to compare the results with the findings of the first operational phase. Results of this study are 1) Insights into chemical, physical, and biological processes as possible injection problems based on given and new data; 2) A summary of the estimation of well integrity based on the operational experiences, tests, and logging data; and 3) An evaluation of the hydraulic properties of the system based on all test data. General conclusions are given on further development of the site.

7. 
Suherlina, L., D. Bruhn, M.O. Saar, Y. Kamah, and M. Brehme, Updated Geological and Structural Conceptual Model in High Temperature Geothermal Field, European Geothermal Congress 2022, 2022.

6. 
Kottsova, A., D. Bruhn, M.O. Saar, and M. Brehme, Clogging mechanisms in geothermal operations: theoretical examples and an applied study, European Geothermal Congress 2022, (in press).

5. 
Marko, A., M. Toth, M. Brehme, and J. Madl-Szonyi, Assessing reinjection potential of abandoned hydrocarbon wells in the Zala region (SW Hungary) through hydraulic evaluation, European Geothermal Congress 2022, (in press).

4. 
Huenges, E., J. Ellis, S. Welter, R. Westaway, K. Min, A. Genter, M. Brehme, H. Hofmann, P. Meier, B. Wassing, and M. Marti, Demonstration of soft stimulation treatments in geothermal reservoirs, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2021, 2021.

3. 
Suherlina, L., M. Brehme, J. Newson, Y. Kamah, I.M. Galeczka, and A. Wibowo, Characterizing reservoir dynamics using hydrochemical and structural-geological data in a high-enthalpy geothermal system, Indonesia, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2021, 2021.

2. 
Marko, A., A. Galsa, B. Czauner-Zentai, M. Brehme, and J. Madl-Szonyi, Geothermal Reinjection Problems from a Basin-scale Hydrogeological Perspective, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2021, 2021.

1. 
Brehme, M., K. Nowak, A. Marko, S. Istvan, C. Willems, and E. Huenges, Injection triggered occlusion of flow pathways in a sedimentary aquifer in Hungary, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2021, 2021.


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PROCEEDINGS NON-REFEREED

3. 
Rangel Jurado, N., X-Z. Kong, A. Kottsova, M. Brehme, F. Games, and M.O. Saar, Experimental characterization of the chemical reactivity of wet scCO2 under elevated pressure and temperature conditions, Society of Core Analysts Annual Symposium , 2023. [View Abstract]CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) systems have been proposed as an affordable and scalable strategy to deploy Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) globally. These systems utilize CO2 to extract geothermal energy from the subsurface while ensuring its permanent sequestration in geologic formations. Unlike conventional hydrothermal systems that use water or brine, CPG utilizes pure supercritical CO2 (scCO2) or water-bearing scCO2 as the subsurface working fluid. While the thermal-hydraulic performance of CPG systems has been extensively studied, their chemical behavior remains largely unexplored due to a lack of field and experimental observations. In this study, we address this knowledge gap by investigating the chemical performance of CPG systems through core-scale laboratory experiments. We conducted batch reactions on rock specimens from the Muschelkalk and Gipskeuper formations in Switzerland, subjecting them to interactions with wet scCO2 under reservoir conditions (~35 MPa, 150 °C) for approximately 500 hours. High-resolution techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray computed tomography (XRCT), and stable isotope analysis, were employed to characterize the evolution of petrophysical properties, morphology, and mineralogical composition. Furthermore, we analyzed fluid effluents using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to gain insights into ion transport processes associated with dissolution reactions. Our results indicate that fluid-mineral interactions involving CO2-rich supercritical fluids are less severe than those caused by aqueous solutions. Nonetheless, the existence of dissolved ions in the wet CO2 samples is clear evidence of ion dissociation caused by the gaseous phase that warrants further investigation. This experimental investigation provides critical insights into fluid-mineral interactions involving CO2-rich fluids and represents a crucial step in ensuring the long-term security and technical feasibility of deploying global CCS and CO2-based geothermal energy.

2. 
Brehme, M, M O Saar, E Slob, P Bombarda, H Maurer, F Wellmann, P Vardon, D Bruhn, and E Team, EASYGO-Efficiency and Safety in Geothermal Operations-A new Innovative Training Networ, EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, EGU21-15437, 2021.

1. 
Asnin, S N, M Nnko, S Josephat, A Mahecha, E Mshiu, G Bertotti, and M Brehme, Fluid Flow Modeling using Geochemistry to Characterize the Songwe Medium Temperature Geothermal -Tanzania, EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts , EGU21-9766, 2021.


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THESES

1. 
Brehme, M., The role of fault zones on structure, operation and prospects of geothermal reservoirs-A case study in Lahendong, Indonesia, Dissertation, pp., 2015.