Dr. Jonathan Ogland-Hand
Geothermal Energy & Geofluids
Institute of Geophysics
NO F 61
CH-8092 Zurich Switzerland
|Phone||+41 44 633 27 51|
|Dominique Ballarin Dolfin|
|Phone||+41 44 632 3465|
REFEREED PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS
Middleton, R, B Chen, D Harp, R Kammer, J Ogland-Hand, J Bielicki, A Clarens, R Currier, K Ellett, and et al. Great SCO2T! Rapid Tool for Carbon Sequestration Science, Engineering, and Economics Applied Computing and Geosciences, 7, 2020. [Download PDF] [View Abstract]CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology is likely to be widely deployed in the coming decades in response to major climate and economics drivers: CCS is part of every clean energy pathway that limits global warming to 2C or less and receives significant CO2 tax credits in the United States. These drivers are likely to stimulate the capture, transport, and storage of hundreds of millions or billions of tonnes of CO2 annually. A key part of the CCS puzzle will be identifying and characterizing suitable storage sites for vast amounts of CO2. We introduce a new software tool called SCO2T (Sequestration of CO2 Tool, pronounced “Scott”), a dynamic CO2 injection and storage model, to rapidly characterize saline storage reservoirs. The tool is designed to rapidly screen hundreds of thousands of reservoirs, perform sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, and link sequestration engineering (injection rates, reservoir capacities, plume dimensions) to sequestration economics (costs constructed from around 70 separate economic inputs). We describe the novel science developments supporting SCO2T including a new approach to estimating CO2 injection rates and CO2 plume dimensions as well as key advances linking sequestration engineering with economics. We perform a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of geology parameter combinations—including formation depth, thickness, permeability, porosity, and temperature—to understand the impact on carbon sequestration. Through the sensitivity analysis, we show that increasing depth and permeability both can lead to increased CO2 injection rates, increased storage potential, and reduced costs, while increasing porosity reduces costs without impacting the injection rate (CO2 is injected at a constant pressure in all cases) by increasing the reservoir capacity. Through uncertainty analysis—where formation thickness, permeability, and porosity are randomly sampled—we show that final sequestration costs are normally distributed with upper bound costs around 50% higher than the lower bound costs. While site selection decisions will ultimately require detailed site characterization and permitting, SCO2T provides an inexpensive dynamic screening tool that can help prioritize projects based on the complex interplay of reservoir, infrastructure (e.g., proximity to pipelines), and other (e.g., land use, legal) constraints on the suitability of certain regions for CCS.
Venstrom, L, J Yager, T Vervynckt, J Ogland-Hand, and S Nudehi Measurement of the Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Magnesium Oxide Electrolytic Cell Concept Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 12/4, 2020. [Download PDF] [View Abstract]The rate of heat transfer by natural convection between the wall and electrolyte of an elec- trolytic cell that produces magnesium (Mg) from magnesium oxide (MgO) at temperatures near 1000 °C in a molten fluoride salt electrolyte is presented. An experimental model of the cell was developed that enabled measurements of the heat transfer in the absence of elec- trolysis and at temperatures less than 100 °C over ranges of Rayleigh numbers from 1 x 10−7 to 7 × 10−8 and Prandtl numbers from 2 to 6200, ranges that include those anticipated in the operation of the MgO electrolytic cell. The model avoids the substantial experimental challenges associated with the high-temperature, corrosive molten salt to enable a conser- vative estimate of the heat transfer at a lower cost and greater accuracy than would other- wise be possible. The results are correlated by the expression Nu = 0.412Ra0.23Pr0.15 with Nusselt numbers spanning 30–80. The application of the correlation shows that the heat transfer between the cell wall and the molten fluoride electrolyte at ≈1000 °C is character- ized by convection coefficients between 100 and 600 W/m2-K and is fast enough to enable heat fluxes up to 10 W/cm2 without compromising the structural integrity of the steel cell wall.
Ogland-Hand, J.D., J.M. Bielicki, Y. Wang, B.M. Adams, T.A. Buscheck, and M.O. Saar The value of bulk energy storage for reducing CO2 emissions and water requirements from regional electricity systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 181, pp. 674-685, 2019. [Download PDF] [View Abstract]The implementation of bulk energy storage (BES) technologies can help to achieve higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind and solar), but it can also alter the dispatch order in regional electricity systems in other ways. These changes to the dispatch order affect the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere and the amount of total water that is required by the electricity generating facilities. In a case study of the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas system, we separately investigated the value that three BES technologies (CO2- Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage, Compressed Air Energy Storage, Pumped Hydro Energy Storage) could have for reducing system-wide CO2 emissions and water requirements. In addition to increasing the utilization of wind power capacity, the dispatch of BES also led to an increase in the utilization of natural gas power capacity and of coal power capacity, and a decrease in the utilization of nuclear power capacity, depending on the character of the net load, the CO2 price, the water price, and the BES technology. These changes to the dispatch order provided positive value (e.g., increase in natural gas generally reduced CO2 emissions; decrease in nuclear utilization always decreased water requirements) or negative value (e.g., increase in coal generally increased CO2 emissions; increase in natural gas sometimes increased water requirements) to the regional electricity system. We also found that these values to the system can be greater than the cost of operating the BES facility. At present, there are mechanisms to compensate BES facilities for ancillary grid services, and our results suggest that similar mechanisms could be enacted to compensate BES facilities for their contribution to the environmental sustainability of the system.